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Potencial Funcional e Tecnologia de Processamento do Sorgo [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], para Alimentação Humana

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18512/1980-6477/rbms.v10n3p180-195

http://rbms.cnpms.embrapa.br/index.php/ojs/index 

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Valéria A. V. Queiroz1, Érica A. Moraes2, Robert E. Schaffert1, Ana V. Moreira2, Sônia M. R. Ribeiro2 & Hércia S. D. Martino2

 

Resumo: Este trabalho tem o objetivo de demonstrar o potencial funcional do sorgo para a alimentação humana e revisar os efeitos dos métodos de processamento sobre o teor de compostos fenólicos e a qualidade proteica do cereal. O sorgo destaca-se como o quinto cereal de maior produção no mundo e o conteúdo de fitoquímicos em seus grãos tem despertado interesse na área da saúde, por exercerem atividade antioxidante no organismo, contribuindo, assim, para a redução dos riscos de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. O processamento dos grãos viabiliza o consumo de cereais pelos humanos. Entretanto, a aplicação de tratamento térmico úmido ou seco, a decorticação e a elaboração de produtos de panificação reduzem a concentração de fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante do sorgo. A qualidade proteica do sorgo é largamente prejudicada pela cocção úmida, devido à formação de pontes de dissulfeto em suas proteínas de reserva. No entanto, a digestibilidade não foi alterada significativamente com o calor seco e aumentou com a germinação e a fermentação dos grãos. Estudos que avaliem e desenvolvam processamentos capazes de manter as características nutricionais são imprescindíveis para o incentivo da inserção do sorgo na alimentação humana.

Palavras-chave: antocianinas, compostos fenólicos, doenças crônicas, qualidade proteica, taninos.

 

Abstract: The paper aimed to demonstrate the functional potential of sorghum for human feeding and review the effects of processing methods on the content of phenolic compounds and cereal protein quality. Sorghum is the fifth most produced cereal crop worldwide and the amount of phytochemicals in grains has attracted the interest of health professionals due to their antioxidant activity that could decrease the risks of chronic diseases. Grain processing enables cereal consumption by humans. However, cooking, dry heating, decortication and manufacture of bakery products reduce the concentration of total phenolics and antioxidant activity. Protein quality of sorghum is largely reduced by cooking due to the formation of disulphide-bonds in the storage proteins. However, digestibility was not significantly affected by dry heating and increased with germination and fermentation of grains. Studies aiming to evaluate and develop processes able to maintain the nutricional characteristics are essential for the inclusion of sorghum in human feeding.

Key words: anthocyanins, phenolic compounds, chronic diseases, protein quality, tannins.

 

1 Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Sete Lagoas, MG, Brasil, valeria@cnpms.embrapa.br, schaffert@cnpms.embrapa.br
2 Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brasil, erica_moraes12@hotmail.com, ana.vladia@ufv.br, sribeiro@ufv.br, hercia@ufv.br

 

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