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A Decisão do Indivíduo Sobre Beber e Dirigir: Uma Análise Econômica a Partir de Uma Abordagem Teórica

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18836/2178-0587/ealr.v5n2p255-270

http://portalrevistas.ucb.br/index.php/EALR/index 

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Rodrigo Scopel1 & Carlos E. L. Silva2

 

Resumo: Este artigo propõe uma formalização teórica para a decisão do motorista sobre a ingestão de álcool. Esta abordagem - que até onde conhecemos é inédita para o tema em questão e ainda fortalece o frutífero campo do direito e economia – chega a dois resultados principais. O primeiro pode ser generalizado a qualquer legislação que estabeleça quantidades mínimas que caracterizariam o crime (bebida e direção, assédio moral, corrupção): a percepção imprecisa do indivíduo sobre a ‘quantidade’ praticada pode ser determinante para que o crime seja cometido. O segundo resultado – adicionando à análise trabalhos empíricos a respeito dos efeitos do álcool sobre o comportamento humano - diz respeito especificamente à Lei 11.705 (Lei Seca): a tolerância a uma quantidade máxima de álcool pode levar um indivíduo avesso ao risco a cometer o crime, não apenas pela percepção imprecisa, mas também pelo fato da maximização se dar em um processo de embriaguez crescente, que o leva a um comportamento mais arriscado.

Palavras-chave: Beber e dirigir, Lei 11.705, Teoria da Utilidade Esperada.

 

Abstract: This paper proposes a theoretical formalization to analyze the drivers’ decision about drinking and driving. The model is based on assumptions coming from both economic theory and empirical works testing the effect of alcohol on the behavior of people. This approach obtains two main results. The first one can be applied to all laws that require some “quantity” to characterize an action as a crime (psychological and moral harassment, drinking and driving). The result shows that people’s uncertainty about how far they can go respecting the law may make them behave as a risk seeker. As consequence, there is a tendency even for risk avoiders to infringe the law. The second result is specifically about drinking and driving laws. According to the model, in countries that do not adopt zerotolerance law, alcohol effect amplifies the first result, and makes risk avoiders behave as risk seekers.

Key words: Drinking and driving; Law 11.705, Expected Utility Theory.

 

1 PUC-RS. E-mail: rodrigoscopel@hotmail.com.
2 PUC-RS. E-mail: carlos.silva@pucrs.br.

 

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