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A Diplomacia de Defesa na Política Internacional

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21544/1809-3191/regn.v21n2p181-204

https://www.egn.mar.mil.br/arquivos/revistaEgn/index.html 

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Antonio R. A. Silva1

 

Resumo: Desde os primórdios da política internacional, o rosto sorridente da diplomacia e o punho de ferro do poder militar sempre interagiram. Atrás da diplomacia existe sempre a possibilidade de se recorrer à ameaça ou ao uso da força. No entanto, muitas vezes, os membros civis e militares que constituem os Ministérios da Defesa e as Forças Armadas são “agentes diplomáticos”, que produzem e reproduzem práticas sociais relacionadas com o uso não-coercitivo dos recursos da Defesa. Este artigo analisa essas práticas e sua relação com a diplomacia, concluindo que o fenômeno constitui um tipo específico de diplomacia: a  diplomacia de defesa, considerada como uma instituição da sociedade internacional. Esse argumento é constituído em três etapas. Inicialmente, são analisados sucintamente alguns autores que conceituam o fenômeno, mas que  não aprofundam sua relação com a diplomacia em seu sentido mais amplo. Em seguida, é estabelecido um conceito de diplomacia de defesa  relacionado com práticas sociais, e estabelecidas suas diferenças em relação a outros conceitos, tais como diplomacia naval, emprego político do poder naval e diplomacia militar. Finalmente, o fenômeno é analisado à luz dos critérios para a existência de uma instituição da sociedade internacional.

Palavras-chave: Segurança Internacional; Escola Inglesa, Diplomacia; Diplomacia de Defesa; Diplomacia Militar.

 

Abstract: Ever since international politics came into being, the smiling face of diplomacy and the mailed fist of military power have always interacted. Behind diplomacy there is always the possibility of the threat or the use of force. Nevertheless, many times the civilian and military members of the Armed Forces and the Defense Ministry are “diplomatic agents”, producing and reproducing peaceful social practices among States in the field of security and defense. This article, based, mainly, on the English School, analyzes the role of the social practices related to noncoercive use of Defense’s resources between states and other entities with standing in international politics, allowing to conclude that the phenomenon is a particular kind of diplomacy: defense diplomacy. This argument is developed in three movements. Initially, are briefly analyzed some theoretical contributions that deal with the phenomenon. Then, established a concept of defense diplomacy related to social practices, and set their differences in relation to other concepts, such as naval diplomacy, political use of naval power and military diplomacy. Finally,the phenomenon is analyzed in the light of the criteria for the existence of an institution of international society.

Key words: International Security; English School, Diplomacy; Defense Diplomacy; Military Diplomacy.

 

1 Doutor em Relações Internacionais pela PUC-Rio. Professor da Escola Superior de Guerra ( ESG). E-mail: aruyasilva@hotmail.com

 

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