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Photoperiodism and Genetic Control of the Long Juvenile Period in Soybean: A Review

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13082/1984-7033.v01n01a10



Deonisio Destro1, Valéria Carpentieri-Pípolo2, Romeu A. S. Kiihl3 & Leones A. Almeida3


Abstract: Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill)is a short day plant that flowers when days are shorter than the maximum critical value, and this period is specific for each genotype. Soybean sensitivity to photoperiodism determines the limits of the sowing period for a latitude and hinders adaptation to wider ranges of latitude. The long juvenile period (LJP), which delays flowering under short day condictions, has been identified in soybean cultivars. The introduction of the LJP characteristic in soybean has made its cultivation possible in regions with latitudes lower than 15o. Knowledge of the controlling genetic mechanisms of this characteristic can help in the development of soybean genotypes for lower latitudes with greater adaptation to sowing periods within the same latitude. Some conclusions about the genetic LJP control in soybean were reached from the present review: a) plants with LJP have a lower development rate for flowering, resulting in the lengthening of the vegetative period; b) the LJP characteristic has a direct influence on plant photoreceptivity and flowering induction; c) the genetic control of flowering time in short days is determined by a different and independent genetic system from that which determines long day flowering time; d) late flowering under short day conditions is a quantitative characteristic controlled by recessive genes, and it is believed that one to five main genes control flowering. Genotypes with a single pair of recessive alleles did not have LJP.

Key words: long juvenile period, breeding for low latitudes, Glycine max


1 Departamento de Agronomia, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Caixa Postal 6001, CEP 86051-990 Londrina, PR, Brasil. E-mail: ddestro@uel.br
2 Departamento de Agronomia, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Caixa Postal 6001, CEP 86051-990 Londrina, PR, Brasil. E-mail: pipolo@uel.br
3 Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) / Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja (CNPSoja), Caixa Postal 231, CEP 86001-970 Londrina, PR, Brasil


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