Купить СНПЧ А7 Архангельск, оперативня доставка


Understanding Chinese and Indian Balancing Strategies

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21544/1809-3191/regn.v22n1p143-168



Antonio H. L. Silva1 & Augusto W. M. Teixeira Jr.2


Abstract: This paper aims to explain the dynamics of balance of power between China and India in a historical perspective. We shall conduct case studies to demonstrate how China and India seek to counterbalance each other in three strategic geographical areas: South Asia, Southeast Asia and at the Indian Ocean Rim. In order to do so, we will examine variables such as arms transfers, military spending, bilateral and multilateral agreements, joint military exercises, and the role of non-Asian actors. The paper concludes that nowadays balance pattern between China and India reflects preferences towards alignments and arms build-up as the main strategic behavior.

Key words: Balancing. China. India.


Resumo: O presente artigo explica as dinâmicas de balança de poder entre China e Índia a partir de uma perspectiva histórica. Estudos de caso selecionados serão conduzidos no sentido de demonstrar como China e Índia buscam contrabalancear-se em três arenas geográficas: Sul da Ásia, Sudeste Asiático e ao longo da orla do Oceano Índico. Para isso, serão examinadas variáveis como transferência de armas, gastos militares, acordos bilaterais e multilaterais, exercícios militares conjuntos e o papel de atores não-asiáticos. O artigo conclui que o padrão de balanceamento contemporâneo entre China e Índia se reflete nas preferências quanto a alinhamentos e processos de rearmamento como os principais comportamentos estratégicos.

Palavras-chave: Balanceamento. China. Índia.


1 PhD. In Political Science (Fluminente Federal University, UFF, Brazil). Professor of International Relations at Damas College (FADIC, Brazil). Rua Jorge Couceiro da Costa Eiras, n 443, apto 2002, Boa Viagem, Recife-PE. CEP: 51.021-300 .E-mail: antoniohenriquels@gmail.com
2 PhD. in Political Science (Federal University of Pernambuco, UFPE, Brazil). Professor of International Relations at Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB, Brazil), João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. Av. Presidente Washington Luiz, 756, apto 202, Bessa, João Pessoa, Brasil, PB. CEP: 58.035-340. E-mail: augustoteixeirajr@gmail.com. The authors would like to express gratitude to Prof. Dr. Alexandre Cunha Leite (UEPB, Brazil) for its comments on a preliminary version of this article and Prof. Dr. Wellington Dantas Amorim (UniLassalle, Brazil) for some insights.


Literatura Citada

BAJORIA, J; PAN, E. The U.S.-India Nuclear Deal. Council on Foreign Relations, [S.l.], 10 Nov. 2010. Disponível em: <http://www.cfr.org/india/usindia-nuclear-deal/p9663>. Acesso em: 07 mar. 2016.

BASKARAN, A. The role of offsets in Indian defense procurement policy. In: BRAUER, J.; DUNNE, P. (Ed.). Arms Trade and Economic Development: theory, policy and cases in arms trade offsets. New York: Routledge, 2004.

BRAUER, J.; DUNNE, P. Arms Trade and Economic Development: theory, policy and cases in arms trade offsets. New York: Routledge, 2004.

CHEUNG, T. M. Forging China`s Military Might: a new framework for assessing innovation. Baltimore: John Hopkings University Press, 2014.

CHIBBER, V. Locked in Place: State-Building and late industrialization in India. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2006.

COHEN, S. P. India: emerging power. Washington: The Brookings Institution, 2010.

COHEN, S. P.; DASGUPTA, S. Arming without Aiming: India’s military modernization Washington: Brookings Institution, 2010.

DASH, K. C. Regionalism in South Asia: negotiating cooperation, institutional structures. New York: Routledge, 2008.

DUFFIELD, J. Alliances. In: WILLIAMS, P. D. (Ed.). Security Studies: an introduction. New York: Routledge, 2008.

EUA concederão US$ 2 bilhões em ajuda militar ao Paquistão. Estadão, São Paulo, 22 Oct. 2010. Disponível em: <http://www.estadao.com.br/noticias/internacional,eua-concederao-us-2-bilhoes-em-ajuda-militar-apaquistao, 628341,0.htm>. Acesso em: 07 mar. 2016.

HAGERTY, D. Are we present at the creation? Alliance theory and the Indo-US strategic convergence. In: GANGULY, S.; SOUP, B.; SCOBELL, A. (Ed.). Us–Indian strategic cooperation into the 21st century: more than words. New York: Routledge, 2006.

HOFF, J. Nixon Reconsidered. New York: Basic Books, 1994.

HUNTINGTON, S. The Lonely Superpower. Foreign Affairs, New york, [S.l.], n. 2, Mar./Apr. 1999.

HURRELL, A. Hegemonia, liberalismo e ordem global: qual e o espaço para potências emergentes. In: HURRELL, A. et al. (Ed.). Os Brics e a Ordem Global. Rio de Janeiro: Editora FGV, 2009.


JOHN, L.; HORNER, C. China faces barriers in the Indian Ocean. Asia Times online, 10 Jan. 2014. Disponível em: <http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/CHIN-02-100114.html>. Acesso em: 07 mar. 2016.

KANN, R. Alliances versus Ententes. World Politics, Princeton, [S.l.], n. 28, p. 611, 1976.

KRISTOFF, Nicholas D. A Reassessment of how many died in the military crackdown in Beijing, The New York Times, 21 June, 1989, Disponível em: http://www.nytimes.com/1989/06/21/world/a-reassessment-of-how-manydied-in-the-military-crackdown-in-beijing.html?pagewanted=2&src=pm>. Acesso em: 07 mar. 2016.

MALIK, V. P. India’s strategic culture and security challenges. ORF Discourse, [S.l.], n. 1, 2010.

MEARSHEIMER, J. A Realist Reply. International Security, Cambridge, Mass., v. 20, n. 1, p. 2, Summer 1995.

MOHAN, R. India and the Balance of Power. Foreign Affairs, New York, June/Aug. 2006.

MOHAN, R. The evolution of Sino-Indian relations: implications for the United States. In: AIRES, A.; MOHAN, R. (Ed.). Power realignments in Asia: China, India and the United States. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 2009.

MÜLLER, H. Security Cooperation. In: CARLSNAES, W.; RISSE, T.; SIMMONS, B. (Ed.). Handbook of International Relations. London: Sage Publications, 2003.

OLSON, M.; ZECKHAUSER, R. An economic theory of alliances. Review of Economics And Statistics, Cambridge, Mass., v. 48, n. 3, p. 266-279, Aug. 1966.

PARAMESWARAN, Prashanth. US, Japan, and India kick off 2016 Malabar Exercise: countries begin naval drills that will last until June 17, The Diplomat, Tokyo, 12 june. 2006. Disponível em: <http://thediplomat.com/2016/06/us-japan-and-india-kick-off-malabar-2016/>. Acesso em: 07 mar. 2016

PAUL, T.V. Introduction. In: PAUL, T.V.; WIRTZ, J.; FORTMAN, M. (Ed.). Balance of Power: theory and practice in the 21st century. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004.

PEHRSON, C. J. String of pearls: meeting the challenge of China’s rising power across the Asian littoral. U.S. Army Strategic Studies Institute, [S.l], 25 July. 2006. Disponível em: <http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?lang=en&id=27007>. Acesso em: 07 mar. 2016.

RADHAKRISHNAN, R. K. India, Sri Lanka conduct naval exercises. The Hindu, Tricomalee, 24 Sept. 2011. Disponível em: <http://www.thehindu.com/news/international/india-sri-lanka-conduct-naval-exercises/article2478888.ece>. Acesso em: 07 mar. 2016.

ROY, N. In Pursuit of Prestige: a theoretical insight into India’s expansionist foreign policy. In: INTERNATIONAL STUDIES ASSOCIATION (ISA) ANNUAL CONVENTION, 2009, New York City, Anais... New York City, New York, February. 2009.

RUSSETT, B. An empirical typology of international military alliances. Midwest Journal Of Political Science, v. 15, n. 2, p. 262-289, May 1971.

SCHICHOR, Y. Conversion and diversion: the politics of China´s Military Industry after Mao. In: INBAR, E.; ZILBERFARB, B. (Ed.). The Politics and Economics of Defence Industries. London: Frank Cass Publishers, 1998.

SNYDER, G. Alliance Politics. New York: Cornell University Press, 1997.

SOOD, V. India and regional security interests. In: AIRES, A.; MOHAN, R. (Ed.). Power realignments in Asia: China, India and the United States. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 2009.

SRI Lanka India Naval Exercise (SLINEX 13). Indian Navy, New Delhi. Disponível em: <http://indiannavy.nic.in/operations/slinex-13>. Acesso em: 07 mar. 2016.

TEIXEIRA JR., A. W. M. De que forma o regionalismo modifica a geopolítica regional de potências emergentes como Brasil e Índia?: instituições, polaridade e preponderância. 2010. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciência Política) - Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, 2010.

THOMAS, R. The South Asian Security Balance in a Western Dominant World. In: PAUL, T.V.; WIRTZ, J.; FORTMAN, M. (Ed.). Balance of Power: theory and practice in the 21st century. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004.

TSAI, M. Y. From Adversaries to Partners? Chinese and Russian Military Cooperation after the Cold War. London: Praeger Publishers, 2003.

US Senate panel clears bill to block $300m military aid to Pakistan. The Express Tribune, 25 May 2016. Disponível em: <http://tribune.com.pk/story/1110052/hurdles-us-senate-panel-clears-bill-block-300m-military-aid/>. Acesso em: 07 mar. 2016.

WALT, S. The Origins of Alliances. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987.

ZAKARIA, F. O mundo pós-americano. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2008.