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Diabetes Tipo 2 e Estilo de Vida: O Papel do Exercício Físico na Atenção Primária e na Secundária

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15600/2238-1244/sr.v13n33p67-75

https://www.metodista.br/revistas/revistas-unimep/index.php/saude/index 

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Mariana S. Nakagaki1 & Katia C. P. McLellan2

 

Resumo: O diabetes mellitus (DM) é visto atualmente como epidemia mundial devido ao grande aumento em sua incidência e prevalência, cujo controle representa um grande desafio para os sistemas de saúde. Assim, ações de intervenção com foco na mudança do estilo de vida necessitam ser implementadas por esses sistemas. Considerando que o exercício e a dieta são os pilares do tratamento do DM, o objetivo desta revisão bibliográfica foi avaliar o papel da mudança do estilo de vida, mais especificamente do exercício físico, na atenção primária e secundária do DM tipo 2. Para tanto, embasou-se em artigos publicados na base de dados Scopus durante o período de 1991 a 2011. As palavras-chave pesquisadas, nas línguas portuguesa e inglesa, foram “diabetes mellitus tipo 2”, “modificação no estilo de vida” e “papel do exercício físico”. De acordo com os referidos artigos, a modificação no estilo de vida por meio da adoção de hábitos alimentares saudáveis, prática regular de exercícios físicos e controle de peso mostra-se altamente eficaz na prevenção, no controle e tratamento do DM tipo 2. Além disso, os exercícios físicos aeróbios, resistidos e combinados evidenciam melhoras no controle metabólico e consequente redução no risco de desenvolver DM tipo 2 e suas complicações.

Palavras-chave: diabetes mellitus tipo 2, modificação no estilo de vida, exercício físico

 

Abstract: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is currently seen as a worldwide epidemic due to the large increase in its incidence and prevalence, which control represents a major challenge for health systems. Thus, interventions focusing changes in lifestyle need to be implemented by those systems. Whereas exercise and diet are the cornerstones of treatment of diabetes, the aim of this review was to evaluate the role of change in lifestyle, specifically physical exercise, in primary and secondary attention of T2DM. For this purpose it was used in the Scopus database, considering the period from 1991 to 2011. The keywords searched in Portuguese and English were “type 2 diabetes mellitus”, “change in lifestyle” and “role of physical exercise”. In accordance with the above mentioned articles the change in lifestyle by adopting healthy eating habits, regular practice of physical activity and weight control was highly effective in the prevention, control and treatment of T2DM. Furthermore, the aerobic, resistance and combined exercises showed improvements in metabolic control and subsequent reduction in risk of developing T2DM and its complications.

Key words: type 2 diabetes mellitus, change in lifestyle, physical exercise

 

1 Discente do curso de especialização em Atuação Multiprofissional em Medicina do Exercício Físico e do Esporte, Departamento de Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Estadual Paulista. E-mail: msantoro16@hotmail.com
2 Professora Assistente Doutor do Departamento de Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Estadual Paulista/UNESP, Botucatu – SP. E-mail: kmclellan@fmb.unesp.br

 

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