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Antimicrobianos Locais Coadjuvantes ao Tratamento Periodontal

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15603/2176-1000/odonto.v15n29p67-72

https://www.metodista.br/revistas/revistas-ims/index.php/O1/index 

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Irineu G. Pedron1, Isabel P. Tortamano2, Maria A. Borsatti2, Carlos A. Adde2 & Rodney G. Rocha3

 

Resumo: É conhecido o papel da microbiota como principal fator etiológico das doenças periodontais, baseado na teoria da especificidade do biofilme. Considera-se ainda a resposta do hospedeiro associada ao agente agressor, com variáveis clínicas da severidade da doença periodontal. Atualmente, a incidência e severidade das doenças periodontais pode ser estabilizada por diversas modalidades terapêuticas, optando-se inicialmente por um paradigma conservador e variando até os procedimentos cirúrgicos mais invasivos. Independentemente das condutas escolhidas, embora particularizado em cada caso, o uso de antimicrobianos desempenha uma satisfatória modalidade coadjuvante no tratamento das doenças periodontais, especialmente na periodontite. A proposta deste trabalho é de revisar e discutir os fármacos de uso local coadjuvante ao tratamento periodontal. Pode-se concluir que a administração de antimicrobianos de uso tópico, como coadjuvante ao tratamento periodontal, apresenta diversos benefícios como a manutenção da concentração do fármaco por período prolongado, redução dos efeitos colaterais e da possibilidade de resistência bacteriana. A tetraciclina apresentou melhores resultados clínicos em comparação com os outros fármacos.

Palavras-chave: doenças periodontais; periodontite; terapia; agentes antibacterianos

 

Abstract: The role of the bacteria is known as the main etiological factor of periodontal diseases, based on the biofilm specificity theory. The host’s answer to the aggressor agent is also considered, with clinical variables of the periodontal disease severity. Nowadays, the incidence and the severity of the periodontal diseases can be stabilized through many therapeutic modalities, as the first step choosing conservative paradigms, and even ranging the most invasive surgical procedures. Independently on the chosen procedure, although it is particularized case by case, the antimicrobial therapy represents a satisfactory coadjuvant modality in the treatment of periodontal diseases, specially in cases of periodontitis. The purpose of this paper is to review and to discuss the role of the topical antimicrobial drugs in the periodontal treatment. It is possible to conclude that topic antimicrobials administration, as a coadjuvant for periodontal treatment, presents many benefits like concentration drug maintenance for extended time, reduction of side effects and bacterial resistance possibility. The tetracycline has presented better clinical results when it was compared with other drugs.

Key words: periodontal diseases; periodontitis; therapy; anti-bacterial agents

 

1 Especialista em Periodontia. Mestrando da Disciplina de Clínica Integrada da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de São Paulo.
2 Professor (a) Doutor (a) da Disciplina de Clínica Integrada da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de São Paulo.
3 Professor Titular da Disciplina de Clínica Integrada da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de São Paulo.

 

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