Farm Animals’s Cognition and the Tests Used on Its Evaluation
Danielle P. B. Fernandes1, Iran J. O. da Silva1, Aérica C. Nazareno1 & Ana C. Donofre1
Abstract: Cognition is a set of activities and processes whereby an animal acquires information and develops knowledge. The most common cognitive processes are: memory, categorization, attention, reasoning and language. This present research was aimed to study the cognitive ability of livestock based on results of cognitive tests described in the literature, as well to expose the various types of tests applied to make such an assessment, in the periods from 1969 until nowadays. Through this bibliographic study, it was discussed issues related to cognition, sentience and animal consciousness, through preference tests, learning, recognition and memorization applied to domestic animals. In general they show a cognitive ability to evaluate the environment for themselves, based on their preferences and motivations. Cognitive tests have shown the high ability of some species to memorize their handlers’ faces, and recognize who is aversively dealing with. Furthermore, it was possible to prove that some producing species are sentient and their choices able to imply physical sensations that can affect your mental state. Thus, it is important to point out measures to help improve the well-being of the animals.
Key words: animal sentience, memory, motivation, preference test, welfare
Resumo: A cognição é o conjunto de processos pelos quais um animal adquire informações e desenvolve conhecimento. Os processos cognitivos mais comuns são: memória, categorização, atenção, raciocínio e linguagem. A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a cognição de animais de produção baseado em resultados de testes de cognição já descritos na literatura, bem como expor os diversos tipos de testes aplicados para realizar tal avaliação, desde o ano de 1969 até o momento. Neste levantamento bibliográfico foi discutido aspectos relacionados à cognição, consciência e senciência animal, por meio de testes de preferência, aprendizagem, reconhecimento e memorização aplicados à animais domésticos. Em geral os animais apresentam uma capacidade cognitiva de avaliar o ambiente em relação a si próprio, com base nas suas preferências e motivações. Os testes cognitivos têm mostrado a alta capacidade de algumas espécies em memorizar o rosto dos seus tratadores, além de reconhecer os que os tratam de forma aversiva. Por conseguinte, foi possível comprovar que algumas espécies destinadas à produção são sencientes, sendo as suas escolhas capazes de implicar em sensações físicas que podem afetar o seu estado mental. Assim, torna-se importante apontar medidas que auxiliem na melhoria do bem-estar dos mesmos.
Palavras-chave: bem-estar, memorização, motivação, senciência animal, testes de preferência
1 Núcleo de Pesquisa em Ambiência (NUPEA), Departamento de Engenharia de Biossistemas, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Pádua Dias, 11, PO Box 9, 13418-900 Piracicaba, Brazil. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abeyesinghe SM, Wathes CM, Nicol CJ, Randall JM (2001) The aversion of broiler chickens to concurrent vibrational and termal stressors. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 73:199–215.
Baker AE, Crawford BH (1986) Observational learning in horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 15:7-13.
Baldwin BA, Start IB (1981) Sensory reinforcement and illumination preference in sheep and calves. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences 211:513–526.
Boivin X, Marcantognini L, Boulesteix P, Godet J, Brulé A, Veissier I (2007) Attitudes of farmers towards Limousin cattle and their handling. Animal Welfare 16:147-151.
Boyle E (2009) Neuroscience and animal sentience. Neuroscience, 1-12.
Breuer K, Hemsworth PH, Coleman GJ (2003) The effect of positive or negative handling on the behavioural and physiological responses of nonlactating heifers. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 84:3–22.
Broom DM (2007) Cognitive ability and sentience: which aquatic animals should be protected? Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 75:99–108.
Broom DM, Sena H, Moynihan KL (2009) Pigs learn what a mirror image represents and use it to obtain information. Animal Behaviour 78:1037–1041.
Cahill L, McGaugh JL, Weinberger NM (2001) The neurobiology of learning and memory: some reminders to remember. Trends in neurosciences 24:578-581.
Cherfas JJ (1978) Simultaneous colour discrimination in chicks is improved by brief exposure to light. Animal Behavior 26:l-5.
Chu lr, Garner JP, Mench JA (2004) A behavioral comparison of New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) housed individually or in pairs in conventional laboratory cages. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 85:121-139.
Command Paper 2836 (1965) Report of the Technical Committee to Enquire Into the Welfare of Animals Kept Under Intensive Livestock Husbandry Systems. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London.
Da Costa MJRP (2003) Manejo adequado de gado. Biológico, São Paulo, 65:87-88, 2003.
Dalle Zotte A, Princz Z, Matics ZS, Gerencsér Z, Metzger S, Szendrő Z (2009) Rabbit preference for cages and pens with or without mirrors. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 116:273-278.
Davis SJ, Fischer GJ (1978) Chick colour preferences are altered by cold stress: colour pecking and approach preferences are the same. Animal Behaviour 26:259–264.
Dawkins MS (2006) Through animal eyes: what behaviour tells us. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 100:4–10.
De Passille AMB, Rushen J, Ladewig J, Petherick C (1996) Dairy calves’ discrimination of people based on previous handling. Journal Animal Science 74:969–974.
Duncan I (2006) The changing concept of animal sentience. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 100:11-19.
Duncan IJ, Petherick JC (1991) The implications of cognitive processes for animal welfare. Journal of Animal Science 69:5017-5022.
Etienne SA (1973) Searching behaviour towards a disappearing prey in the domestic chick as affected by preliminary experience. Animal Behaviour 21:749-761.
Feltenstein MW, Ford NG, Freeman KB, Sufka KJ (2002) Dissociation of stress behaviors in the chick social-separation – stress procedure. Physiology Behavior 75:675 –679.
Fraser D, Weary DM, Pajor EA, Milligan, BNA (1997) Scientific conception of animal welfare that reflects ethical concerns. Animal Welfare 6:187-205.
Grandin T (1998) Review: Reducing handling stress improves both productivity and welfare. The professional Animal Scientist 14:1-10.
Grandin, T, Hauser M Animals Are Not Things: A View on Animal Welfare Based on Neurological Complexity. http://www.grandin.com/welfare/animals.are.not.things.html. Acessado em 10 de Janeiro de 2015.
Ham AD, Osorio D (2007) Colour preferences and colour vision in poultry chicks. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274:941–1948.
Hemsworth PH, Coleman G, Barnett JL, Borg S, Dowling S (2002) The effects of cognitive behavioral intervention on the attitude and behavior of stockpersons and the behavior and productivity of commercial dairy cows. Journal Animal Science 80:68–78.
Hemsworth PH, Coleman GJ, Barnett JL, Jones RB (1994) Behavioural responses to humans and the productivity of commercial broiler chickens. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 41:101-114.
Hemsworth PH, Price EO, Borgwardt R (1996) Behavioural responses of domestic pigs and cattle to humans and novel stimuli. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 50:43–56.
Herbert M, Sluckin W (1969) Acquisition of colour preferences by chicks at different temperatures. Animal Behaviour 17:213–216.
Hess EH (1956) Natural preferences of chicks and ducklings for objects of different colors. Psychological Reports 2:477–483.
Hotzel MJ, Machado Filho LCP, Yunes MC, Silveira MCAC (2005) Influência de um ordenhador aversivo sobre a produção leiteira de vacas da raça Holandesa. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 34:1278-1284.
Hötzel MJ, Martendal AA (2010) Relevância do uso de ferramentas cognitivas e etológicas para estudos de bem-estar animal. Ciência Veterinária nos Trópicos 13:1-8.
Huber-Eicher B (2004) The effect of early colour preference and of a colour exposing procedure on the choice of nest colours in laying hens. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 86:63-76.
Hughes BO, Black AJ (1973) The preference of domestic hens for different types of battery cage floor. British Poultry Science 14:615-619.
Hutson GD (1985) The influence of barley food rewards on sheep movement through a handling system. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 14:263.
Imfeld-Mueller S, Van Wezemael L, Stauffacher M, Gygax L, Hillmann E (2011) Do pigs distinguish between situations of different emotional valences during anticipation? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 131:86-93.
Jones RB, Carmichael NL, Rayner E (2000) Pecking preferences and pre-dispositions in domestic chicks: implications for the development of environmental enrichment devices. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 69:291-213.
Jones RB, Faure JM (1981) The effects of regular handling on fear in the domestic chick. Behavioural. Processes 6:135-143.
Jones RB, Larkins C, Hughes BO (1996) Approach/avoidance responses of domestic chicks to familiar and unfamiliar vídeo images of biologically neutral stimuli. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 48:81–98.
Jones RB, Waddington, D (1993) Attenuation of the domestic chick's fear of human beings via regular handling: in search of a sensitive period. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 36:185–95.
Jones RC (2013) Science, sentience, and animal welfare. Biology & Philosophy 28:1-30.
Jones SE, Phillips CJC (2005) The effects of mirrors on the welfare of caged rabbits. Animal Welfare 14:195-202.
Kirkden RD, Pajor EA (2006) Using preference, motivation and aversion tests to ask scientific questions about animals’ feelings. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 100:29-47.
Koba Y, Tanida H (2001) How do miniature pigs discriminate between people?: Discrimination between people wearing coveralls of the same colour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 73:45-58.
Laughlin K, Huck M, Mendl M (1999) Disturbance effects of environmental stimuli on pig spatial memory. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 64:169–180.
Legrand AL, Von Keyserlingk MAG, Weary DM (2009) Preference and usage of pasture versus free-stall housing by lactating dairy cattle. Journal of dairy science 92:3651-3658.
Lensink J, Raussi S, Boivin X, Pyykkönen M, Veissier I (2001) Reactions of calves to handling depend on housing conditions and previous experience with humans. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 70:187–199.
Markowitz TM, Dally MR, Gursky K, Price EO. Early handling increases lamb affinity for humans. Animal Behaviour. 55:573-587.
McAfee LM, Mills DS, Cooper JJ (2002) The use of mirrors for the control of stereotypic weaving behaviour in the stabled horse. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 78:159–73.
Mellor DJ, Diesch TJ (2006) Onset of sentience: the potential for suffering in fetal and newborn farm animals. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 100:48–57.
Mendl M (1999) Performing under pressure: stress and cognitive function. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 65:221-44.
Mendl M, Laughlin K, Hitchcock D (1997) Pigs in space: spatial memory and its susceptibility to interference. Animal Behaviour 54:1491-1508.
Mendl M, Paul ES (2004) Consciousness, emotion and animal welfare: Insights from cognitive science. Animal Welfare.
Miklo´ si A, Gonda ZS, Osorio D, Farzin A (2002) The effects of the visual environment on responses to colour by domestic chicks. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 188:135–140.
Molento CFM (2005) Contribuição à Literatura Portuguesa sobre Bem-Estar Animal. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz 24:483-492.
Müller CE, Udén P (2007) Preference of horses for grass conserved as hay, haylage or silage. Animal feed science and technology 132:66-78.
Munksgaard L, De Passille´ AM, Rushen J, Thodberg K, Jensen MB (1997) Discrimination of people by dairy cows based on handling. Journal Dairy Science 80:1106–1112.
Oliveira GCB, Silva RR, Veloso CM, Marques JDA, Dias DLS, Silva FF, Carvalho GGP, Leite LC, Lisboa MM, Abreu Filho G (2014) Interação ordenhador - vaca e as respostas comportamentais, produtivas e econômica dos animais. Archivos de Zootecnia 63:381-384.
Panksepp J (2006) Emotional endophenotypes in evolutionary psychiatry. Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 30:774–784.
Parrott RF, Houpt KA, Misson BH (1988) Modification of the responses of sheep to isolation stress by the use of mirror panels. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 19:331-338.
Pedrazzani AS, Fernandes-de-Castilho M, Carneiro PCF, Molento CFM (2007) Bem-estar de peixes e a questão da senciência. Archives of Veterinary Science 12:60–70.
Peters MDP, Silveira IDS, Machado Filho LCP, Machado AA, Pereira LMR (2010) Manejo aversivo em bovinos leiteiros e efeitos no bem-estar, comportamento e aspectos produtivos. Archivos de Zootecnia 59:435-442.
Petherick JC, Duncan IJH (1991) Society for Veterinary Ethology 1966-1991, 25th anniversary review. In: M. C. Appleby, R. I. Horrell, J. C. Petherick, and S. M. Rutter (Ed.) Applied Ethology: Past, Present and Future, Proc. of the Int. Congress, Edinburgh, Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, Hertfordshire, U.K pp 11-16.
Piller CAK, Stookey JM, Watts JM (1999) Effects of mirror-image exposure on heart rate and movement of isolated heifers. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 63:93-102.
Regolin L, Rugani R, Pagni P, Vallortigara G (2006) Delayed search for a social and a non-social goal object by the Young domestic chick (Gallus gallus). Animal Behaviour 70:855–864.
Reimert I, Bolhuis JE, Kemp B, Rodenburg TB (2012) Indicators of positive and negative emotions and emotional contagion in pigs. Physiology & behavior 109:42-50.
Rierson RD Broiler preference for light color and feed form, and the effect of light on growth and performance of broiler chicks (2008) Master of science. 62 f. Department of Animal Sciences and Industry College of Agriculture. Kansas State University.
Roper TJ, Cook SE (1989) Responses of chicks to brightly coloured insect prey. Behaviour 110:276–293.
Roper TJ, Marples NM (1997) Colour preferences of domestic chicks in relation to food and water presentation. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 54:207–13.
Rushen J, De Passille AMB, Munksgaard L (1999) Fear of people by cows and effects on milk yield, behaviour and heart rate at milking. Journal Dairy Science 82:720–727.
Rybarczyk P, Koba Y, Rushen J Tanida H, De Passillé AM (2001) Can cows discriminate people by their faces? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 74:175-189.
Salzen EA, Lily RE, McKeown JR (1971) Colour preference and imprinting in domestic chicks. Animal Behavior 19:542–547.
Shettleworth SJ (2009) Cognition, evolution, and behavior. Oxford University Press.
Sommerville BA, Broom DM (1998) Olfactory awareness. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 57:269-286.
Stone SM (2010) Human facial discrimination in horses: can they tell us apart? Animal cognition 13:51-61.
Tanida H, Nagano Y (1998) The ability of miniature pigs to discriminate between a stranger and their familiar handler. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 56:149–159.
Taylor A, Sluckin W, Hewitt R (1969) Changing colour preferences of chicks. Animal Behavior 17:3–8.
Taylor AA, Davis H (1998) Individual humans as discriminative stimuli for cattle Bos taurus. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 58:13–21.
Vallortigara G, Regolin L, Rigoni M, Zanforlin M (1998) Delayed search for a concealed imprinting object in the domestic chick. Animal Cognition 1:17–24.
Waiblinger S, Menke C, Coleman G (2002) The relationship between attitudes, personal characteristics and behaviour of stockpeople and subsequent behaviour and production of dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 79:195–219.
Waynert DF, Stookey JM, Schwartzkopf-Genswein KS, Watts JM, Waltz CS (1999) The response of beef cattle to noise during handling. Applied Animal Behaiour Science 62:27–42.
Zupan M, Kruschwitz A, Huber-Eicher B (2007) The influence of light intensity during early exposure to colours on the choice of nest colours by laying hens. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 105:154-164.