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A Dança de Mata Hari no Contexto da Feminilidade e do Exotismo

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15603/2176-0985/mandragora.v15n15p68-79

https://www.metodista.br/revistas/revistas-ims/index.php/MA/index 

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Alexandra Kolb1

 

Resumo: A dançarina holandesa Mata Hari (Margaretha Geertruida Zelle) atingiu um status de ícone na história da dança do século XX, em parte devido à sua execução como espiã alemã em 1917. Embora não possuísse formação em dança, ela apresentava seus trabalhos, principalmente em um estilo eclético oriental, com sucesso para as plateias europeias. Discuto aqui as contribuições de Mata Hari contra o pano de fundo do cenário da dança europeia imediatamente anterior à Primeira Guerra Mundial. Essa discussão explora especificamente a estrutura ideológica e estética na qual ela se inseria como artista do sexo feminino no contexto das tendências da dança que ocorriam simultaneamente naquele momento. Recorrendo às teorias feministas, orientalismo e pós-colonialismo (Edward Said), o artigo analisa como ambas as facetas de Mata Hari, a artística e a não-artística, adequavam-se a certas imagens estereotipadas da mulher, ao mesmo tempo em que também subvertiam as convenções sociais.

Palavras-chave: Mata Hari – Orientalismo – Nudez na dança – Feminismo.

 

Abstract: Dutch dancer Mata Hari (Margareth Geertruida Zelle) reached an icon status in the 20th century dance history, partly due to her execution as a German spy in 1917. Although she did not have any dance training, she successfully performed her pieces, mainly in an eclectic Western style, to European audiences. Here I discuss Mata Hari’s contributions against the background scenery of the European dance immediately before the First World War. This paper specifically explores the ideological and aesthetical structure in which she worked as a female artist in the context of dance tendencies that simultaneously occurred at that time. Based on feminist theories, orientalism and postcolonialism (Edward Said), the article analyses  how both of Mata Hari’s facets – the artistic and the non-artistic ones – adjusted to certain stereotyped female images, and how at the same time they subverted social conventions.

Key words: Mata Hari – Orientalism – Nude dance – Feminism. 

 

1 Alexandra Kolb é coordenadora do programa em Estudos da Dança na Universidade de Otago, Nova Zelândia, e doutora pela Universidade de Cambridge. Dançou profissionalmente em Düsseldorf e na Academia de John Neumeier do Ballet de Hamburgo. Seus interesses de pesquisa incluem dança europeia e literatura no modernismo do século XX; dança, política e globalização. Alexandra tem artigos publicados em várias revistas internacionais e seu livro, Performing Femininity (Oxford), será publicado em breve.

 

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